GLASS AND ITS TYPES

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GLASS AND ITS TYPES [Submitted by : Abhishek



Table of content

  • Introduction
  • History
  • Properties
  • Raw materials used in glass
  • Manufacturing of glass
  • Types of Glass
  • Applications
  • Conclusion

Introduction

  • Glass is a non-crystalline solid material.
  • They are structurally disordered materials (i.e amorphous materials).
  • Glass are transparent material, particularly in the visible region of
    electromagnetic spectrum.
  • According to ASTM(American Society for Testing and Materials), Glass
    is an inorganic product of fusion, which has been cooled to a solid state
    condition.

HISTORY

  • In the past, People uses naturally occurring glass(i.e obsidian, a volcanic
    glass) for regular uses.
  • According to Roman historian, Pliny, The first glass was made by
    Phoenician merchants in the region of Syria around 5000BC.
  • The first man made glass was in eastern Mesopotamia and Egypt around
    3500BC.
  • First glass vessels was made in 1500BC.



Properties

Glass is;-

  • Amorphous
  • Atomic structures are in disordered places.
  • Brittle
  • Transparent/translucent
  • Transparent means, all the rays striking through the surface of the glass
    passes through it without scattering of photons.
  • Translucent means, the ray of light passes through the glass surface after
    some rays scattered on the surface.
  • Good electrical insulator
  • No definite crystal structure i.e. glass has high compressive strength
  • Can absorb, transmit and reflect light .

Raw materials used in manufacturing of glass

The important raw materials used for the manufacturing og glass
are:-

  • Sand(SiO2) ( The main component)
  • Soda(Na2O)
  • Calcium carbonate(CaC03)
  • Felspare
  • Borax
  • Cullets (pieces of broken glasses) and so on.

Manufacturing of glass

  • Melting
  • Forming and Shaping
  • Annealing
  • Finishing

Melting:-

The raw materials are inserted in the furnace for the melting process.

Forming and shaping:-

The viscous mass obtained from melting is poured into mould to get different types of articles of desired shape either by blowing or pressing between the rollers.

Annealing:-

Glass articles are then allowed to cool gradually at room temperature by passing through different chambers with descending temperatures. This reduces the internal strain in the glass .

Finishing:-

Finishing is the last step in glass manufacturing it involves following steps ;

i) cleaning

ii) grinding

iii) polishing

iv) cutting

v) sand blasting




Types of glasses

There are many varieties of glass and some of them are given below;

  • Soda lime or Soft Glass
  • Potash lime or Hard Glass
  • Optical Glass
  • Borosilicate or Pyrex Glass
  • Safety Glass
  • Lead crystal Glass
  • Coloured Glass
  • Photo Chromatic Glass

APPLICATION OF GLASS

Glass is used in the following non exhaustive list of products;

  • Packaging
  • Tableware (drinking glasses ,plates , cups, bowls etc.)
  • Housing and building
  • Interior design and furniture ( mirrors, partitions, shelves, lighting.)
  • Appliances and transport
  • Fiber optic cables
  • Renewable energy (solar energy glass, wind turbines)

Featured image via PIXABAY

 

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