GLASS AND ITS TYPES [Submitted by : Abhishek

Table of content

  • Introduction
  • History
  • Properties
  • Raw materials used in glass
  • Manufacturing of glass
  • Types of Glass
  • Applications
  • Conclusion


  • Glass is a non-crystalline solid material.
  • They are structurally disordered materials (i.e amorphous materials).
  • Glass are transparent material, particularly in the visible region of
    electromagnetic spectrum.
  • According to ASTM(American Society for Testing and Materials), Glass
    is an inorganic product of fusion, which has been cooled to a solid state


  • In the past, People uses naturally occurring glass(i.e obsidian, a volcanic
    glass) for regular uses.
  • According to Roman historian, Pliny, The first glass was made by
    Phoenician merchants in the region of Syria around 5000BC.
  • The first man made glass was in eastern Mesopotamia and Egypt around
  • First glass vessels was made in 1500BC.


Glass is;-

  • Amorphous
  • Atomic structures are in disordered places.
  • Brittle
  • Transparent/translucent
  • Transparent means, all the rays striking through the surface of the glass
    passes through it without scattering of photons.
  • Translucent means, the ray of light passes through the glass surface after
    some rays scattered on the surface.
  • Good electrical insulator
  • No definite crystal structure i.e. glass has high compressive strength
  • Can absorb, transmit and reflect light .

Raw materials used in manufacturing of glass

The important raw materials used for the manufacturing og glass

  • Sand(SiO2) ( The main component)
  • Soda(Na2O)
  • Calcium carbonate(CaC03)
  • Felspare
  • Borax
  • Cullets (pieces of broken glasses) and so on.

Manufacturing of glass

  • Melting
  • Forming and Shaping
  • Annealing
  • Finishing


The raw materials are inserted in the furnace for the melting process.

Forming and shaping:-

The viscous mass obtained from melting is poured into mould to get different types of articles of desired shape either by blowing or pressing between the rollers.


Glass articles are then allowed to cool gradually at room temperature by passing through different chambers with descending temperatures. This reduces the internal strain in the glass .


Finishing is the last step in glass manufacturing it involves following steps ;

i) cleaning

ii) grinding

iii) polishing

iv) cutting

v) sand blasting

Types of glasses

There are many varieties of glass and some of them are given below;

  • Soda lime or Soft Glass
  • Potash lime or Hard Glass
  • Optical Glass
  • Borosilicate or Pyrex Glass
  • Safety Glass
  • Lead crystal Glass
  • Coloured Glass
  • Photo Chromatic Glass


Glass is used in the following non exhaustive list of products;

  • Packaging
  • Tableware (drinking glasses ,plates , cups, bowls etc.)
  • Housing and building
  • Interior design and furniture ( mirrors, partitions, shelves, lighting.)
  • Appliances and transport
  • Fiber optic cables
  • Renewable energy (solar energy glass, wind turbines)

Featured image via PIXABAY


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.